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The husbands in return highly respected and cherished their wives. In line with the conceptualization of the good woman as a post-socialist invented tradition, Narantsatsral claims that the tradition of male authority was revitalized in combination with the florescence of tradition sergen mandalt 48 in post MongoХТК: Her beauty consequently reflects on the husband.

The Nation-State as Male-Headed Patriline The nuclear family, headed by the husband, is seen as a direct, micro-level reflection of national and state power. Consequently, men and women are metaphorically linked to the state and lower populace, respectively. Thus, an influential man, who also builds the overarching structure of state and national power, must be elevated by his wife, because his ability to lead depends on it.

This gendered conceptual division also partially explains the current difficulties women have in obtaining power positions in current Mongolia see subsequent section on new women. On Beauty in Traditional Discourse Among countryside nomads and within traditional discourse, beauty is both internal and external and highly linked to health, collectivity, and functioning within nomadic culture.

One of the greatest surprises to me flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women carrying out surveys amongst herders and in the countryside, was a markedly internal focus to answers on feminine beauty.

As I explained in the introduction, the term for beauty that I used in my interviews and research—goo saikhan—can be interpreted flexibly by contemporary actors, much like the English counterpart beauty. As the following section explains, nomadic herders did have an awareness and standard for aesthetic attractiveness. What kind of woman is considered beautiful? Answer 1 Female: Mongolian women are talented, capable, wise, accomplished, and beautiful…According to society, a beautiful woman is socially cultured, is an indicator of literally: These qualities are viewed as intertwined with physical attributes i.

Thus, internality is emphasized over physicality. Internal Beauty Actors both in the countryside and city who ascribed to traditional discourse stressed that beautiful women did not necessarily have to be physically alluring. Odval describes the focus on internal beauty as a remnant of Mongolian tradition: By extension, many Mongolian actors stressed that good women do not have to be physically attractive to be considered beautiful: They behave well, are open, communicative, and have a good rapport with others.

If she respects others, then she is a beautiful woman. Inthe anthropologist Anne Becker published an ethnography on the contemporary Fijian conception of the body as the embodiment of social relationships. Similarly, according to traditional Mongolian discourse, an individual—in flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women case, a woman—is never completely autonomous nor detached from social relations.

Nevertheless, these norms of sociability and collectivity are changing. The Shining Woman A focus on internal beauty within traditional discourse does not preclude an awareness of aesthetic preference. Herders clearly had a conceptualization of physical attributes, yet they were considered secondary corporeal embodiments of internal character. Accordingly, Khongorzol told me that beautiful women were those that woke up early and flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women for early walks; the early rising and movement was supposed to clear the mind, make the bones stronger, make women shine, and clear their skin.

However, the early rising of women is a necessity in nomadic pastoralist households, where gender roles stipulate that the wife both lights the hearth and extinguishes the fire at night she is the first to rise and the last to sleep.

Despite the relative isolation of his nomadic community, Soviet influences probably spread throughout the countryside during the socialist era and persevered to this day.

This is an example of how individuals, unbeknownst to themselves, occasionally participate in globalization. In this way, the aforementioned beauty traits of demureness, calm, good demeanor, etc. Especially in the case of Khongorzol and early rising, the justification of beauty masks and reinforces the underlying requirements of gender norms among Mongolian nomads.

Therefore, traditional discourse stipulates that bodily health depends on the performance of nomadic duties and work, and adherence to community and familial principles. Historically, both nomadic Mongolian men and women wore a traditional garment, a deel—a large wraparound coat that insulates warmth, incorporates functionality, and conceals a large portion of the body. For example, Khongorzol was a year-old yurt-district resident who had moved from the countryside two years prior to our interview.

When I asked her, as a former countryside resident and nomadic herder, regarding the differences between urban and countryside norms of beauty, ЬСО ЬКТН: Traditional discourse and countryside norms for female bodies exhibit greater flexibility in body sizes than within modern discourse and посмотреть еще strong, capable, healthy women.

Once again, athletically thin bodies were idealized during the socialist era for their health, strength and 60 Subsequently, inducing del Carpini to remark in the 13th century that men and women looked the same flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women marriage due to their similar appearance and clothing Good Woman Beauty Norms as Reification of Traditional Gender Subjectivities Ideals of beauty within traditional discourse encompass values that increase survival and success within nomadic lifestyles, as well as allow the continuation of a patriline whether on local or nation-state level.

Additionally, except within the official promulgations взято отсюда socialist propaganda, women were historically encouraged to birth children and promote the patriline yet, even within socialist rhetoric, women needed to bear progeny for the revolution.

Thus, the invented tradition of the good woman comprises an amalgamation of current nation- state needs for unity, fears of otherness, the rigors and patrilineal legacy of nomadic lifestyles, and the continuance of socialist era norms.

The herder survey answers mentioned towards the beginning of this section included words like hardworking, demure, mannerly, clean, diligent, intelligent, serene, educated, neat, societally-acceptable, civil, moral, nice, capable, soft, industrious, strong and harmonious. BШНв thinness norms are less central within this context, whereas motherhood ideals and reproductive faculties are elevated in importance.

As we will see in the next section, these ideals stand at odds with the growing awareness of modernity, newness, individualism, democracy and the market emerging in middle and upper class Ulaanbaatar. The Mongolian entry to this competition взято отсюда Bayarmaa Khuselbaatar, who described her experiences comparing herself to women from all over the world.

When asked in an interview what set her apart from others, she proudly explained: A Nepalese miss [contestant] entering a competition with me said that she could enter with me. Before I went back to Mongolia, she said to me: I get the impression that you are hot-headed, energetic, and self-confident, just like a European. Therefore, Bayarmaa is eager to assert that she, like most modern Mongolian women, is not perceived as Asian, but flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women progressive, like in European countries.

This mental demarcation of European as modern, and Asian as phone number ratings dating.com reviews reports customer consumer service, mirrors new political goals in the contemporary Mongolian nation-state. During my fieldwork, Cosmopolitan Magazine had recently started publishing a Mongolian edition, including opening an Ulaanbaatar headquarters.

In addition to being invited to a job interview in their offices, I met and befriended many of their employees, who were also quite active in Mongolian civil society flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women activists and artists.

Many of them were well-versed in at least one European language and had studied or traveled more extensively abroad than within their own country. In contrast to the idealized notion of maternal, herder, good woman femininity, these women embodied the ideals of the free-market and democracy: While some Mongolians wish for a return to traditional values, others struggle with a backwards conceptualization of Asian tradition and strive to create an image of a liberated, modern Mongolia.

Within contemporary Mongolian politics, democratically dating sites over 50 years age 21 memes political parties are manifestations of civic-oriented national identity: Undarya Tumursukh has used this designation to describe the allegiance of various modern Mongolian political parties to the values of democracy and freedom that the Mongolian state supposedly symbolizes These attempts at portraying Mongolian national identity as democratic and liberating also have had an effect on the portrayals of contemporary women, in order to promote the image of a forward-looking, tolerant Mongolia.

According to this viewpoint, modern, developed nations had modern, developed women. The New Woman as Consumer Alpha. When they catch sight of their target, a well-dressed, fashionable Mongolian, they stop and take a picture. Each week a new set of photos goes on the online fashion blog, which is greeted in the Mongolian blogsphere by a barrage of excitement, tweets, and style comparisons.

Frequently, these photos are taken in front of Central Tower: The largest shop windows visible from outside are the Burberry and Louis Vuitton stores—which opened in —lined with expensive purses and advertising offering consumer dreams of globalized elegance and wealth. These stores are surprisingly rarely empty—especially considering that the entire flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women of Mongolia has a population of 3 million people.

How can these luxury stores afford flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women stay solvent in a 65 I. European products were perceived as superior in quality chanartai in comparison to local goods. However, this designation did not apply to Chinese goods, which were often viewed as poorly constructed and unhealthy—i.

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I was told in Khanbogd never to buy fruit, because all local perishables were imported from China and likely to be bad. They also both mentioned that Mongolians were European, because of Turkish, and not Asian, descent. Because of the current wave in consumption patterns amongst the new rich shine bayachuud in Ulaanbaatar Orch Through conspicuous consumption, Mongolians show that they belong to the wealthy and market successful. In section 3. Nevertheless, the mining boom has consecutively increased the disposable income of Mongolian families over the last six years.

Consequently, expensive items have become symbols used by Mongolians to advertise their prosperity and individualization in the new market economy. The new woman thus reflects middle and upper class women—the nouveau riche—with the employment, resources and buying power to display their wealth. However, this phenomenon also pertains to all members of Mongolian society; even the poor want to look rich.

As the fashion blog and opening of Cosmopolitan Magazine attest, ideals of self-actualization through consumption have become a big business in Mongolia. Although this pertains to both genders, marketing strategies and globalized influences deliver especially women messages of success through consumption and appearance.

The difference between people before and after they begin working on their appearance it highly noticeable amar medegddeg ur d n yamar baisan odoo yamar bolson. Upon further flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women, my research partner, Zola, agreed with this statement; actually, she recalled, that if she dressed up, wore certain clothing and used a lot of makeup, she never had to pay источник статьи a meal or drinks in Ulaanbaatar.

Through her consumption of feminine products and matching gender performance, Zola was then viewed as a woman and was treated accordingly by men through the purveyance of drinks.

For Oyuunaa, a year-old Ulaanbaatar native, changing her consumption patterns when flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women left high school served as a rite of passage into womanhood: I had long hair, wore no makeup, no fancy clothing, nothing [decorative] you know. I was like a man with long hair.

But when I went to university, my mom allowed me to cut my hair, I had my eyes operated on…and it was very good opportunity for me to change myself and become my own person and find myself…so I went to Korea [to study] and I wore short dresses, sexy clothing, I started to wear makeup, change my hairstyles, and I changed and found myself literally: Consuming to Succeed Within the discourses of the democratization and meritocracy, women who ascribe to modernity discourse increasingly believe that consuming in the interest of beauty and physical appearance holds the key to their ultimate success.

Similar to other contemporary Asian settings Yang ; Huawomen in contemporary Mongolia have received the message that their appearance is the key to their career; as previously mentioned, Narantsatsral exclaimed: For example, when I asked Odtsetseg why she believed women strived to be beautiful in contemporary society, she answer: Prior toMongolian society was communist, so everyone had a job and once they did their job—even as a cleaner—they got enough money to live off of.

But now economically surviving has gotten harder and expenses are skyrocketing and women see famous girls on TV who win competitions and then later hear that she got married to a millionaire.

All these beautiful young girls internalize these stories and start believing that if they are beautiful they can marry a rich man and live happily ever after. Mongolian women- oriented job advertisements frequently include stipulations for height and age; further supporting the belief that appearance is important for female professional achievement.

She had to go through a training program to get a job, which told her height, high-heel inch, and hair length requirements for waitresses. I also heard from several women including my Mongolian teacher that it was near to impossible for a woman over 35 to find a job; a statement collaborated by age statutes in job postings.

Although this perception is based on random sampling and not necessarily representative of the larger job market, this preponderance of female age requirements echoes the sentiments of my research informants. The new woman has to look like статья flirting with disaster molly hatchet lead lesson plans pdf free downloads этом is successful as defined by appearance standards, because then she probably will be—a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Conspicuous Consumption Another expression of the promise of happiness through consumption is the Mongolian mania for brand items. The sociologist Thorsten Veblen wrote in on the behavioral characteristics of the emerging American nouveau riche in the Second Industrial Revolution He coined the term conspicuous consumption to describe their predilection to accrue luxury goods and accoutrements as a display of upward разочарован flirting games unblocked play free download gratis подруга and social class belonging.

But these items are still new and so everyone aspires flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women to buy one. Consequently, consumption patterns, and the flaunting of luxury нажмите сюда, allow an individual to 68 According to rumors I heard from Zola and other informants, https://myocep.gitlab.io/style/dating-sites-for-teens-14-18-25-images-1173.html mobile phones were first offered by Mobicom—the first Mongolian mobile provider—they were really expensive.

The first numbers contained easily memorable numbers and all began with multiple ones i. These days, one can tell from the phone number if it is a pre or post-paid phone. Thus, when Zola, who had multiple mobile phones as most Mongolians do to take advantage of the inner-company service benefitswould use her contractual phone with a professional number, our calls were received and returned more readily.

The New Woman as Breadwinner In addition to ideals of modernity and progressivity, the cosmopolitan, modern new woman is flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women a phenomenon of globalized market values and stresses. At first glance, these statistics seem like an indication of gender equitability in the country, yet only represent a part of the complex gender relations in the market. Women, on the other hand, were considered more vulnerable. According to Oyuunbileg, a longtime yurt-district resident who grew up in the countryside: Always wearing nice clothing.

According to her doctoral thesis and in personal communication, Altangerel explained how socialist-era parents worried about their daughters, due to pre-socialist spread of illiteracy among women. And even in the rest of the country. We should look up to them as an example and a lot of women emulate them and make it to the top. And I believe women like that have decreased in number in recent years. Women just have to play a strong role in society. Accordingly, women currently make significant contributions to household incomes and are increasingly the sole breadwinner.

Consequently, modern, new, highly-educated women are expected to tackle any task, and be formidable both in the local workplace, at home, and internationally. The Failure of Masculinity In comparison to the rising star of these new women, many contemporary men are seen as shirking away from responsibility to succumb to alcohol and lethargy Altangerel The growing awareness of women in the workforce has contributed to a masculinity inferiority complex and gender instability, including higher rates of alcohol abuse and domestic violence towards women Enkhjargalbileg et al.

The new woman is associated with the contemporary female breadwinner who would rather allocate her own funds than be dependent on a dysfunctional archaagui husband: Women direct both home and family and men are scorned. They raise the kids and are the head of the household. A woman can do everything. In my direct experience, Gerel,71 a flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women jeep driver, disappeared on a drinking binge for days while I stayed with his family.

When he returned, he admitted to having deep insecurities regarding the fact that his wife had посмотреть больше job and ran the house, while he could never find any work. The Complexity of the Reverse Gender Gap Despite the higher education rates for Mongolian women, they continue to populate mostly low-tiered jobs and suffer higher job precariousness than men.

Bolormaa also was cognizant of different gendered labor classifications while working in a mining company, flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women female employees were almost exclusively employed in customer service positions, while men were overwhelmingly hired to excavate. The difference in female presence flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women lower and flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women court judges echoes a pervasive phenomenon in the upper echelons of institutions—a dearth of women.

During my fieldwork inonly 3 of 76 parliament members were female. The perceived instability and vagaries of employment have induced many women to overcompensate through education and work effort.

Mв Ъualitative interviews support this conclusion. She has to really put in the effort to obtain an important position in her career. This white envy has to be there and if a woman feels this pressure, than she continues to better herself. Women should always be ready to compete and should endeavor to improve themselves. Large numbers of men work in the informal herding sector and are thus overeducated, because their economic адрес страницы has no education requirement Yano Within приведенная ссылка discourse, new women frequently embody breadwinners who take this societal pressure and turn it into a catapult to success.

Individualism and the Body Many contemporary Mongolians have perceived a palpable shift from collectivism to individualism since the transition to a market economy. In essence, the perceived dissolution of old social networks of belonging have augmented the pressure on women to focus on the individual body as a signifier of market success, societal values, and personal rights.

Modes of facial adornment or dress, for example, have always been to some degree a means of individualization; yet the extent to which this was either possible or desired was usually quite limited. Consequently, women who ascribe to modernity discourse increasingly view their physical bodies as a signifier of their self and their value within society; by extension, they self-discipline and control their external bodies and behavior in fear of an abstract observing social gaze.

This new form of judgment allowed the gaze of power to move from specific spheres to everyday practice. When discussing the recent changes in appearance in Khanbogd, Bolormaa, who works as a hairdresser, said that locals had been influenced by children who had moved to the city and then returned after their studies.

The return of local children and the influx of foreigners made residents acquire new tastes for fear of seeming ugly in comparison. When asked why looking good was important to her job as a singer, she answered: Like they say: Narantsatsral also decided to switch to more feminine clothing after hearsay regarding her appearance traveled back to her: I ended up running into a friend with her year-old son in this disheveled state.

Through dating companies hate images incisions of plastic surgery, the exertion of exercise, and the regulations of diet, an individual has increased control over their external projection. Thus, technological and medical advances have flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women in a crisis of the body; flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women is no longer clear where the body stops and the individual starts.

The sociologist Chris Shilling characterized this corporeal predicament as the body as project: This differs from how the body was decorated, inscribed and altered in traditional societies as it is a more reflexive process, and is less bound up with inherited models of socially acceptable bodies which were forged through rituals in communal ceremonies. Recognizing that the body has become a project for many modern persons entails accepting that its appearance, size, shape and even its contents, are potentially open to reconstruction in line with the designs of its owner.

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Therefore, the body—and our usage of it—increasingly becomes a tool for personal expression. Yet, as alluded by Foucault in the previous section, our range of choices посмотреть больше not totally free, but determined by society, interlaced with various social meanings, and controlled through power and other actors.

However, through the action of consumption, we determine the message about ourselves and our systems of belonging we wish to project to the world. Consequently, through flirting in spanish bible verse bible download action of picking, choosing and consuming market options, new women undergo a reflexive process of character construction and increasingly make the physical body the material expression of their internal identity.

On Beauty in the New Discourse 6. Has the right body shape. Slightly oval face. The mouth, nose, and eyes have the right symmetry are proportional. The teeth are straight. Intelligent, and carries herself correctly. На этой странице comparison, the term beauty elicited statements of meticulous physical measurements and uncompromising exactitudes from this and flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women other urban students.

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The aim of this exercise in Western contexts is to show the unrealistic, unobtainable nature of many internalized and culturally glorified beauty ideals. Because the exercise description mentioned drawing a beautiful woman, most of the participants were most likely prompted to offer physical designations.

The new woman overwhelmingly associates beauty with the physical, material body. As a result, new discourse increasingly describes beauty as strictly corporeal. The Perfect Female Body According to the survey distributed among rural and urban students, the ideals for feminine beauty and body combine local Mongolian preferences with traits perceived as foreign, including Western and South Korean.

However, countryside residents were much more likely to express Asian idol preferences, including K-pop South Korean band stars. Thus, although countryside residents preferred Mongolian women, their frequent mentioning of South Korean actresses and singers reflects printable games 2 flirting 2017 for games kids multifarious process of cultural diffusion and globalization.

However, there were differences in the internalization of this body ideal, which will be discussed in the subsequent section. Striving for Thinness By far the most pervasive emerging body ideal was the adoration of thin bodies turankhai, goolig. This discrepancy led the authors to contemplate cultural differences that might corroborate their findings—i. Consequently, preferences for double-eyelids versus foreign eyes were controlled for. Respondents still overwhelmingly preferred foreign non-Asian eyes with double-eyelids.

See appendix for sample survey—8. This longing for thinness is driven by the cultural values of success, upward mobility, and modernity associated with this body form. In writing about middle-class American society, Flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women Bordo describes how the discipline ideals of the market have become reified through standards of skinniness and the reduction of fat: Although the U.

Thus, various discourses overlap in the same region and paint a complex picture of the traditional versus modern dichotomy. ЦТННХО-class flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women, Mongolian Вами flirting meme images girls names girls boys удивило women increasingly associate thin, svelte, feminine bodies with values of work, discipline, modernity and capability.

The emergent view of the body as an ongoing project allows new women to incorporate unrealistic beauty standards with their material bodies.

When I asked Oyuunaa, whose female circle of friends all grew up in middle-class Ulaanbaatar, whether most of her friends were content with their bodies, she answered: First coined by the anthropologist Mimi Nichter regarding North American teenagers, fat talk is seen as a prosocial event through reciprocally propping up egos of the participantsbut is a result of positive associations with thinness and a view of the usually female body as a signifier of personal worth.

According to the results of the survey, urban Mongolian women are more greatly affected by thinness ideals than their countryside counterparts. As previously читать in methods sectionthe body image survey I disseminated included a row of body silhouettes with progressively larger sizes.

Inspired by a study by Fallon and RozinI asked participants to circle their ideal female body size, and also asked women to additionally indicate which ideal they estimated men would choose. City women, on the contrary, believed that men would desire a body size that was lower than what they believed was ideal 2. This discrepancy between what urban women believed was ideal and what they believed men desired might indicate a cognizance of external pressures to be thin.

As independently stated by Narantsatsral, who was unaware of this survey: But if you listen more flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women, then they also say that [being too thin] is horrible, ugly, and emaciated.

Nevertheless, the survey strongly indicates that men are less affected by feminine flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women of thinness than Mongolian women. Plastic Surgery—Fixing and Consuming the Body The confusion over the limits of the body, the focus on physical appearance, and the promises of consumption have paved the way for the emergence of plastic surgery.

Middle and upper class Mongolian women and men! In line with the perception of the body as a project, Oyuunbileg discusses her opinion on plastic surgery: But I am a woman. So occasionally I have these thoughts that maybe I could have something fixed literally: In my interview with Narantsatsral, she listed several current Mongolian politicians, business figures, entertainment stars and models and the surgery rumors surrounding each. It is really hard for me to get a job as a lawyer.

I continue to educate myself: I read books, like specialist books. I go to courses for computer programming…External appearance is also very important for the employers. So I have to change my look to fit the requirements.

Similarly, as previously mentioned, Oyuunaa flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women a period of self-actualization through consumption.

One critical component of transformation was her decision to undergo eyelid surgery: Through changing my eyes and getting this operation I really increased my confidence. Before that, I had some problems; even though I was one of the top students, I was a bit diffident and shy and ashamed of my eye.

These discourses frequently provide new women with opportunities for personal expression and legal maneuverability; yet, they redefine women as citizens and bound to a nation-state polity. Nevertheless, new women enjoy increased personal freedoms in comparison to good women.

However, increased individualization, shifting focus on the body, the pressures of consumerism, and appearance maintenance have limited women in other respects.

This metaphor can also be applied to the body; new women increasingly discipline, regulate, restrict, cut up, adorn, alter, and mold their bodies. Beauty thus serves as the beacon to perfection—the light on the horizon that humans strive for in hopes of creating a faultless world. In contemporary Mongolia, the body beautiful also serves as a redeeming lodestar to society—a way to materialize and embody the values modern Mongolians envision. However, the vagaries of experience have created two flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women guides in the current social fabric.

Contemporary Mongolian female bodies have increasingly become the reification of the Mongolian ideological constructs of tradition and modernity. Both tradition and modernity—as nationalist discourses with origins in socialist propaganda, reformulated in the Democratic Revolution, and coopted by current parliamentary political parties—represent two contemporary, uniquely Mongolian, historically-developed visions of nationhood.

Nationalism, an inherently patrilineal discourse in the Mongolian context due to its concern with the continuation of a group, has increasingly shifted the definition of beauty to a female-regulatory one. The beautiful female body—the giver of life and the nurturer of men—serves as the symbol of national discourse as the epitome of value, behavior, role, decorum, and societal enactment.

Thus, by striving for beauty, a woman concurrently symbolizes and molds herself into the likeness of idealized femininity according to her value construct.

The beautiful Mongolian woman becomes the inspiration for the direction of future society. The Historical Contingency of Beauty Tradition and modernity are dichotomous and relative. They are concepts in a constant state of production—intertwined in a network of political directives, local influences, and historical flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women that fluctuate with the vagaries of time and experience.

In this paper, I have used many designations for tradition and modernity—narratives; overarching frameworks; ideoscapes; political discourses; nationalist directives; and local differentiation versus global homogenization, respectively. My aim in using these multiple descriptions was to elucidate their construction as amorphous, fluid, overlapping constructs—like a Venn diagram—that allow actors to switch between or simultaneously embody both categories.

In addition to a multifarious, historical approach to Mongolian value narratives, beauty concepts must be conceptualized as equally heterogeneous, amorphous, увидеть больше products. However, I hoped to demonstrate with this paper that the global spread of beauty standards are much more complex than a simplified one-to-one transference from the West to the Other.

As an influx of influence arrives in a region, local actors react to, renegotiate, and pick and choose what to absorb. Thus, in order for a global beauty standard to be locally adopted, certain cultural preconditions must exist to encourage, expedite and direct the process.

Beauty, like the narratives, is every changing, adapting and consolidates a plethora of factors. Thus, as long as all of these various symbolic, historical, environmental, political, and, occasionally, individually capricious influences forge beauty ideals in one locality, then global beauty homogenization will be practically impossible.

In the case of Mongolia, the confluence of globalization, nationalism, and historical constraints has splintered, not homogenized, local beauty constructs. The Mongolian Local Differentiations of Feminine Beauty Tradition and modernity embody various value systems with different representations of idealized beautiful femininity.

The metanarrative of tradition is associated conceptually with the past and with the countryside. IЧ the scope of this invented tradition, new yet perceived as old ideals for womanhood were created. Consequently, women and men who ascribe to this value system commonly adulate old queens and fertile nomadic mothers as exemplary females.

Because this discourse is associated with ethnic-oriented nationalism, idealized good women are loyal to the Mongolian patriline— whether flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women through the husband, the own family, the birthing of sons, or the male-headed state. Because her role revolves around family maintenance, nurturance, the continuation of indigenous Mongolian traditions i.

Additionally, her inner virtue shines out to make her physically appealing and healthy. In contrast to tradition, the metanarrative of modernity is future and urban-oriented.

The chief values of modernity in Mongolia include participation in the market economy and democratic system through honoring individual rights and whims. Consequently, a huge factor in the internalization of this discourse is employment and access to flirting moves work video online 2017, in order to have the resources to actualize individual dreams through consumption.

As opposed to tradition discourse, the individualized female body is ascribed increased significance in modernity discourse.

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Mongolian women who perceive of themselves as modern actors increasingly regulate, self-discipline, and maintain their outward appearance in pursuit of a perceived global beauty standard. Their bodies become projects; constantly in flux and in the process of becoming.

Therefore, wealth is expressed through physical accoutrements and alterations; be it in the purchase of the latest fashion, the pursuit of slimness, or the acquisition of К ЧОа ЧШЬО.

Thus, the political goals of democracy, individual rights, and market participation are expressed through feminine beauty norms. A beautiful woman in this discourse is consequently a woman who embodies and physically displays market and flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women success. On Tradition and Modernity as Patrilineal Manifestations During my fieldwork, I encountered a plethora of beliefs and incited discussion on which historical Mongolian посмотреть больше had more freedom.

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Others countered that this supposed equality had been a farce. Contemporarily, many nomadic pastoralists believed that current herder women had more literal space for personal fulfillment. While other Mongolians claimed that the personal joys of career and consumption granted urban women more possibilities for self-fulfillment.

Consequently, I heard many strongly reasoned, yet contradictory opinions while carrying out this fieldwork on feminine beauty and body ideals. In all of the aforementioned epochs, Mongolian women and men were agents within a patrilineal societal framework. Similarly, in the history of the formation of nation-states, there has neither ever been a state with absolute gender parity, nor one where women have dominated.

These differences in manifestation might explain why various Mongolian actors perceive various epochs as more gender egalitarian; the expression of the multifaceted female subject category might have simultaneously experienced increased freedoms and setbacks in different regards. Such a perspective can allow a greater understanding of why contemporary Mongolian women might have the legal right to own property whereas they were property in pre-soviet law codes90but are sexually more inhibited than their pre-socialist sisters.

From my perspective, contemporary Mongolian nomadic women have more spatial and temporal freedom, are less concerned with unobtainable standards of physical beauty, and more comfortable in their skin. Yet, urban women increasingly expend large amounts of time, mental exertion, and resources to status and physical appearance.

Additionally, urban women frequently accrue the double-burden of career and family; and overcompensate for job tenuousness and low pay through additional workloads. Thus, in lieu of political power, the body remains the site for female personal expression. Appendix 8. Is there a difference between a beautiful woman and a sexy woman or are they the same?

Has the conceptualization of a beautiful woman changed within your lifetime? From what point time period did it begin to change? In your opinion, what is important for a healthy mind and body? What kind of food is important to be healthy? How has your diet changed in your lifetime? Only for women to answer: What do you do every day in order to be beautiful? Why is it important to be beautiful? Tailbarlana uu? Yagaad goo saikhan baikh chukhal we? Female Male Age: Where were you born? City, aimig center, sum center?

How do you live now? Inner city apartment, building, yurt? What does it mean to be a beautiful woman? Which one of these physical traits is preferable? Circle the most beautiful eye shape: Circle the most beautiful lips: Circle the most beautiful body type: Circle the most beautiful face нажмите чтобы узнать больше Circle the most beautiful proportions: Circle the most beautiful breast size: Name the first idea that comes to mind: What type of personality does a woman with these eyes flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women Do you think you are beautiful?

How important is physical attractiveness in choosing a partner? How important flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women physical attractiveness in being successful? If you could change ссылка на продолжение thing about your body, what would it be?

Would you change anything? Would you ever consider getting plastic surgery to change an aspect of your body? Have you had plastic surgery?

Who is your favorite actress? Is she beautiful? Why or why not? How many hours of TV do you watch a day? How many hours a day do you spend on the internet a day? How many hours a day do you spend on your appearance? What is your favorite magazine?

For women only: Which weight type is preferred by men?: Body Image Sample Survey Mongolian -: Yurt House Flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women Apart. Women Men Women Men 3. References Cited Bembi San Publishing House.

Altangerel, G. Der Sinn meines Lebens ist die Zukunft meiner Kinder: E-mail, May Discussion, January 6. Anderson, Benedict R.

Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London, New York: Anu Marketing. Appadurai, A. Disjuncture and Flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women in the Global Cultural Economy.

Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Public worlds v. Minneapolis, Minn: University of Minnesota Press. Ardener, S. Persons and powers of women in diverse cultures: Cross-cultural perspectives on women. Berg Pub. Ariely, G. Globalisation and the decline of national identity? An exploration across sixty- three countries. Nations Natl 18 3: Atwood, C. Https://myocep.gitlab.io/style/flirting-games-romance-videos-free-music-downloads-4939.html, D.

Gender, equality and education from international and comparative perspectives. International perspectives on education and society v. Emerald Group Pub. Banner, L. American Beauty. Los Angeles, CA: Figueroa Press. Barria, C. The Atlantic. Bat-Otgon, Z. Pixels Printing. Becker, A. Body, Self, and Society: The View from Fiji.

New cultural studies. University of Pennsylvania Press. Keeping Up Appearances: Gender and Ideal Womanhood in Postsocialist Mongolia: Bille, F. Resisting resistance: Women and nationalist discourse in Mongolia. Blad, C. Political Islam and State Legitimacy in Turkey: International Political Sociology 6 1: Bordo, S. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press. Bovin, M. Nomads Who Cultivate Beauty: Wodaabe Dances and Visual Arts in Niger.

Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Brown, P. Culture and the evolution of obesity. Human Nature 2 1: Bruun, O. Mongolia in Transition. Studies in Asian topics Richmond, Surrey: Bulag, U. Nationalism and Hybridity in Mongolia. Oxford studies in social and cultural anthropology. Oxford, New York: Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press. Bumaa, N. The 20th Century: From Domination to Democracy. In Modern Mongolia: Reclaiming Genghis Khan. Philadelphia, Ulaanbaatar: Burn, N.

Women in Mongolia: Https://myocep.gitlab.io/style/flirting-vs-cheating-cyber-affairs-online-training-course-test-5487.html Progress under Transition.

New York: Butler, J. Bodies that matter: Central Intelligence Agency. Chernin, K. The Obsession: Reflections on the Tyranny of Slenderness. Harper Perennial. Comaroff, J. Body of Power, Spirit of Resistance: University of Chicago Press.

Consten, Вижу dating tips for women with kids near me without insurance узнать. Im Reiche der Chalcha.

Dietrich Reimer. The story of the Mongols whom we call the Tartars: Historia Mongalorum quos nos Tartaros appellamus: Branden Pub.

Daniels, R. A Documentary History of Communism and the World: From revolution to collapse. Hanover, NH: Emotions in the Field: The Psychology and Anthropology of Fieldwork Experience. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.

Dostoyevsky, F. Pevear, and L. The Idiot. Vintage classics. Vintage Books. Douglas, M. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concept of Pollution and Taboo.

Routledge classics. Elbegdorj, T. Elverskog, J. Our Great Qing: Enkhbold, E. Odriin Sonin. Enkhtsetseg, Flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women. The Secret History of the Mongols and Women. Mongolian State University Institute of History.

Fallon, A. Sex differences in perceptions of desirable body shape. J Abnorm Psychol 94 1: Fink, B. Evolutionary Psychology of Facial Attractiveness. Current Directions in Psychol Sci 11 5: Foucault, M. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison.

Geertz, C. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected essays. Basic Books. Giddens, A. Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge, U. Polity Press in association with Basil Blackwell. Hausmann, R. Tyson, and S. The Global Gender Gap Report Hesse-Biber, S. Am I thin enough yet?

The cult of thinness and the commercialization of identity. Oxford University Press. Hobsbawm, E. Inventing Traditions. In The Invention of Tradition. Eric J. Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger, eds. Cambridge University Press. Ranger, eds.

The Invention of Tradition. Hooper, A. Culture and Sustainable Development in the Pacific. New ed. ANU E Press. Hroch, M.

flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women

Buying beauty: Cosmetic surgery in China. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. Humphrey, C. Religion, State and Society 20 Women and ideology in hierarchical societies. In Persons and powers of women in diverse cultures: Shirley Ardener, ed. Kaplonski, C. This resource was intended for scholarship purposes.

Mongolian statements throughout the paper will subsequently be transliterated according to the following: Black stars represent fieldwork locations. Map source: Aimag—Administrative продолжить чтение for regional province. Mongolia currently has 23 aimags and six were visited during fieldwork see star locations. Many aimag centers—i. Aimags minus Ulaanbaatar have an average population around 70, but only a few thousand live in the aimag center i.

Dalanzadgad has a population around 14, Sum—Aimags are comprised of smaller districts known as sums. Khanbogd and Kharkhorum in the following paper are lfirting centers, or the capitals of sum regions. Sums have a population around 5, yet Flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women has more 7, due to mining activities.

The city is also experiencing rapid migration from the countryside, which has resulted in the explosion of shantytowns—known as yurt districts—surrounding the city center. Countryside—the remaining one million Mongolians are spread picutres a partition of land four times larger than Germany. Semi-nomadic pastoralists are still common in the countryside, but settled agricultural communities are growing.

Through his misappropriation of a Dostoevsky quote, Bold—a yak herder on the northern Mongolian steppe—pays homage to the unceasing power of beauty across distance, cultures, and time.

What is beauty and how does it save us? Mlves study aims to demonstrate how the micro-level body can exhibit a mirror of picturres level processes; how actors use the instrument of the body to navigate, replicate or react against societal vagaries. Through a chronological and multilayered analysis, this study will exemplify how body ontology and beauty concepts represent the society of their genesis.

Accordingly, as Vlip society changes, actors discover new pictrues to interpret, carve, and ob their canvas of womne flesh in accordance with emerging ethics, identity wojen, belonging, and cultural messages. Therefore, an analysis of current beauty archetypes—as the corporal, material embodiment of a local flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women of values and norms—reveals fluctuations and adaptations in the contemporary Mongolian social fabric.

According to fieldwork performed from spring to springcontemporary Mongolian women flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women two overarching value discourses at their disposal. Due to the centrality of feminine bodies to picturs discourse, wommen streams of nationalist thought envisage varying ideals for feminine behavior, decorum, and societal roles. On the contrary, civic- oriented political discourses in Mongolia commonly describe an archetype of modernity—a new woman as an educated, capable, hardworking pcitures woman.

These discourses can be conceptualized as a discursive Venn diagram—although they build separate political value systems ideoscapespictuures Mongolian women can occupy varying spectrum locations or reproduce both simultaneously. This idea that the macrocosm of a society, including its dominant values and power relations, poctures replicated and expressed—either consciously or unconsciously—on the micro-level of the body has come under fire https://myocep.gitlab.io/style/flirting-with-disaster-molly-hatchet-album-cutting-system-software-2016-3366.html overly simplistic in an increasingly complex world Comaroff Owmen, this concept has become one of the fundamental tenets of current body theory by drawing the scholarly gaze away from the body as naturalistic phenomenon and towards its посетить страницу as sociocultural and historical construction.

Thus, according to Reischer and Kooжмите body beautiful—the physical embodiment of aesthetic ideals—can be perceived as both symbol and agent wor, the local cultural fabric. In the ethnographic record, the modification and altercation of body forms have been frequently recorded as signifiers of group identification.

Yet, actors are not only passive message boards, but are actively aware of the symbols of different appearance choices, and modify and implement based on personal desires—i. Picturea as Gendered Pitcures Because women womne historically been predominantly associated with the body beautiful, the pursuit of aesthetic attractiveness is a central component of the feminine subject experience in most societies. According to Foucault, changes fflirting technology and economics in eighteenth and nineteenth century Victorian Western society stimulated a change from monarchal power to disciplinary power, where actors increasingly regulated their own bodies along a spectrum of normalization to pathologization Foucault cllp Beauty as Cultural, not Biological, Phenomenon This paper assumes that body and beauty ideals for women are culturally—and not predominantly genetically—constructed.

Social Darwinist or biological anthropological attempts to find underlying genetic explanations for the feminine pursuit of beauty have been inconclusive—studies on inborn preferences for thinness, cli; figures, facial averageness, and symmetry как сообщается здесь to be hotly contested.

Accordingly, the ideas of self- regulation and the importance of body and beauty norms for flirtiny performativity applies to multiple cultural settings. For example, research by Singh on universal heterosexual male preferences for. Beauty is much more wrk a genetic predisposition, but the material, physical embodiment of the ideal subject created in a particular cultural setting. Recent studies also indicate that temporary affective states, like hunger, can affect mate preference over time Nelson and Morrison ; Pettijohn et al.

Therefore, although some genetic preferences might exist, current research is inconclusive, multifaceted, and continues to be debated.

Thus, the recent history of changes to Western female beauty and attire ideals can be perceived as a history of female adaptation to the male standard. Therefore, the differences in cultural ideals of gender roles and expectations, larger social narratives, and power relations have molded the ideals of feminine beauty amongst Western middle-class white Americans and Azawagh Arabs into vastly different physical embodiments.

Mongolian Women as Symbols and Agents of Social Change Similar to Western contexts, Mongolian women have also inherited this association with the material and the beautiful. In this research, the word goo saikhan was used as a translation for beauty. The phrase beautiful woman was translated as goo emegtei, which induced multiple interpretations physicality and character traitsmuch like the English word beauty.

Additionally, men are almost never described as goo. Although contemporary upper class, urban Mongolian men also increasingly focus on appearance, the pursuit of beauty has historically been a central component of the female Mongolian subject experience. Thus, the central tenet of this paper is that contemporary Mongolian women simultaneously symbolize flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women actively alter different value systems through their body and beauty performance.

With the switch to the market economy and introduction of democracy inMongolia began a rapid process of economic, political and cultural reformulation. In accordance with the beauty discussion, women and their appearance have become crucial symbols and agents of these nationalist- driven discourses.

Consequently, through replicating and striving читать больше beauty, womenn Mongolian women choose to 1 categorize themselves as female Mongolian subjects and 2 identify ckip and physically embody the overarching values and narratives of their respective value maps.

As a result, women occupy different subject positions on a spectrum between tradition and modernity expressed through body praxis and womwn ideals; i. In contrast, women who lean towards ideals of modernity increasingly instrumentalize the physical body as a project of self-actualization and global market competitiveness.

Consequently, the layout of this адрес страницы documents the historical development of female beauty ideals by locating them wor the larger historical and societal context s. Chapter 2 describes the extensive quantitative and qualitative methods used wo,en the investigation of this topic. Chapter 3 describes the intense transformation underwent in Mongolian society in the last century. Chapter 4 presents the development of the current discourses of tradition and modernity, their potential classification as ideoscapes, and their construction in the current nation-state.

Chapter 5 presents the gendered embodiment and physical reification of tradition through the archetype of the good woman. Chapter 6 presents att discourse of modernity, including its personification through the new woman.

Finally, the entirety of the paper is discussed and summarized in chapter 7. Methods This research documents a snapshot in time from to Through the flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women of a Fulbright grant, I was able to investigate changing concepts of feminine beauty and body in Mongolia from March until February The three initially countryside months—June to August —were spent in accompaniment of Zola, a year-old NGO worker who assisted in fligting and https://myocep.gitlab.io/style/flirting-moves-that-work-eye-gaze-chart-video-youtube-2016-12.html collection.

Although I initially planned to only spend one extended period of time in one remote location, the vagaries of flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women forced me to go back and forth between Ulaanbaatar and countryside locations several times. However, the result was that I lived with several families in various regions, and consequently was exposed picfures individuals from a variety of social circumstances. The locations are marked with black stars on map before the introduction.

The bulk of qualitative data was gathered through participant observation and interview gathering with local families in various strata of both urban and rural locations.

For the weeks that I lived in each household, I tried to fully integrate myself culturally through assumption of responsibilities and social life. During the participant observation period, semi-structured interviews of varying lengths between 40 and 90 minutes were recorded with the household members. Additional interviews were performed with third parties in both countryside locations and in Ulaanbaatar; in the countryside, additional interviews were gathered that had relevance to the topic of beauty, i.

In Ulaanbaatar, interviews were organized either hhat NGO contacts or through networks; i. In total, 31 formal interviews and four informal interviews contributed to the data. These interviewees included nomadic herders, sum center and aimag center residents in the countryside of mostly low and middle class standing. In Ulaanbaatar, I interviewed low and middle class residents in the yurt districts, and low to upper class residents of the city center.

Zola accompanied me for many of my countryside travels and translated the first interviews that I recorded and later transcribed. I was accompanied by a native speaker in all of my interviews in order for accuracy, but I reached advanced Mongolian proficiency by the end of my research period.

Consequently, I researched and interviewed fairly independently. See the appendix 8. In qrt to interview and observation data, I compiled two sets of surveys. The first survey, a makeshift survey on beauty and nutrition, consisted of seven questions on the definition mmoves beauty, health, nutrition and appearance habits.

The second survey consisted of beauty and body image questions, including on body shape and size; eye, nose, and lip preferences; breast size; actress preferences; importance of physicality; media flirting with disaster hatchet lyrics youtube download full beauty maintenance habits.

In total, urban surveys— female and 83 male—and — female and 95 male—countryside surveys were collected. The ages ranged from 14 to 50, but the average age for the city respondents was English translations of both surveys can be found in the appendix 8. As I will discuss in chapter 3, Mongolia is currently undergoing a wave of nationalist sentiment. Partially as a result, lines between Mongolian traits, people and customs and foreign entities were literally being drawn in the sand.

Due to this climate of suspicion, I encountered anger, not from informants, families and friends, but from multiple strangers. Due to the history of 7 See survey in appendix—8. Results were summarized in 8. I, too, ignored my resultant sadness at exclusion and despondency through movez repression during my qomen and for woomen year afterwards. Now two years in the past, I am able to acknowledge flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women importance my emotions played in my passionate relation and engagement with my flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women. Автору flirting games romance videos 2017 download full нужные to my experiences, I am not only more dedicated and reflective towards the field of anthropology, I can viscerally empathize with the life-worlds of women and minorities in Mongolia that would have been impossible had I chosen to ignore my feelings or let them lead me away from flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women field.

My research interest has thus been shaped, informed and bolstered by my own experiences on the crossroads fkirting nationalism, gender and globalization in Mongolia. Positionality My experiences and fieldwork were indelibly marked by my position on the cusp of three discourses: All three factors affected my research findings both positively and negatively. Zola and I frequently experienced a rapid decrease in hospitality from local communities, because we both did not fit the age profile picutres with researchers.

However, my youth 25 years enabled me to work with NGOs piftures focused on young women— the cohort most directly affected by changing feminine values—and I was consequently viewed as a peer. My status as a woman allowed increased access to the life worlds of women, but made discussions with men more difficult.

Finally, as previously mentioned, my obvious appearance as a Western foreigner elicited massive distrust while in areas indelibly affected by mining activities. Yet, my foreigner status—and official documentation from the Mongolian National University—allowed me to enter ln pass out surveys in schools throughout Mongolia with minimal bureaucratic resistance. Thus, my local categorization of female, young, and Western framed my research scope and direction. Through the extensive interviews, survey responses, and anecdotal experiences, I noted flirting signs on facebook meme pictures without text frameworks and repetitious opinions that emerged and reoccurred among different Mongolian actors in varying locations.

Thus, my intention is not to quantitatively delineate or categorize, but to describe the overarching, reappearing threads in sentiments expressed by Mongolians.

Therefore, my goal is to use rich ethnographic fieldwork—anecdotal, qualitative and quantitative knowledge—to thus describe these iterative value frameworks shared by independent actors in the contemporary Mongolian nation-state. Nationalism and Political Directives in Mongolian Society Although Mongolia underwent a political, social, and cultural metamorphosis with the Democratic Revolution indlip of the current political trends in Mongolia—including the discourses of tradition and modernity—have their roots in Soviet-era policy This statement can be applied to most contemporary politics; although the switch to a market economy and parliamentary democracy represented a massive change in the Mongolian political landscape, many of womrn previous sentiments pjctures not disappear, but were altered and appropriated to serve the new political order.

This section thus focuses on the chronological development of different nationalist Mongolian strains, because 1 these sentiments influence ;ictures contemporary construction of the narratives of tradition and modernity, and 2 because of the importance of female bodies to nationalist discourses see section 5. In order to understand the gender-specific requirements of tradition and modernity frameworks, we must locate the origins of these discourses in the socialist-era policies of fraternal socialism and proletarian internationalism, respectively.

The Soviet Origins of Mongolian Flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women and Internationalism Contrary to popular consensus among contemporary Mongolians, nationalist sentiment has not always been a mainstay of Mongolian identity. In his article Creating National Identity in Socialist Mongolia, thatt anthropologist Chris Kaplonski argues though absence picturew contrary evidence— unified nationalist sentiments did not occur in early 20th century texts.

Instead, Kablonski indicates that Mongolian ethnic groups were categorized and discussed as separate lineages defined through their aimags administrative units but now used to indicate states or feudal allegiance Two goals were pursued pictjres the Soviet-style state building process: According to Soviet ethnography, the people and their state apparatus had to go through a series of unilear evolutionary steps in order to reach the ultimate culmination cli the equitable Soviet state.

Yet, according to Soviet historiography, the people had to undergo a capitalist stage before true class consciousness could be reached; a progression that did not coincide with the pre-Soviet widespread existence of feudalism and homeland-based identity in Mongolia.

A revolutionary class had to be created Bulag Accordingly, Soviet and Mongolian propagandists and ethnologists set themselves to the task of developing a unified class consciousness that fit the Soviet-inspired nation-state construction; a new Mongolian historical periodization Kaplonski Once a nationalist consciousness had emerged in Mongolia, the Soviet-inspired government tried to curtail the nationalist fervency that had resulted and refocus the energy in the interest of global solidarity.

Carole Pegg writes about the forced repression of other ethic wwork types However, the vestiges of both of these social engineering projects remain in contemporary Mongolia. Reinventing History in the Democratic Revolution The Democratic Revolution saw the replacement of one version of history for another.

In order to create a nation-state and new political order, people need to be rallied around a thqt sense of identity. Accordingly, nationalist sentiments were highly pervasive in contemporary Mongolia during my fieldwork Although constructed in opposition to the Soviet past, different strains wrt modern Mongolian nationalism developed in accordance with the Picures nationalist and internationalist social picturrs projects.

Although I do not wish to categorize the contemporary Mongolian political parties into nationalism-type camps, the socialist MPP and the democratic opposition12 can loosely be identified as exemplifying xenophobic and civic nationalism, respectively Tumursukh ; Bulag Thus, both political directions serve national interests, yet one is more ethnic nationalist and the other pitcures internationalist in focus.

Resource Nationalism As ofMongolian nationalism continues to deepen due to increased fears over economic vagaries, mining, corruption, and wealth distribution. Due to the discovery of massive coal, copper, gold, and uranium deposits,14 Mongolia drew increased attention from international mining companies, in part because of the switch to flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women market economy in In addition, the Mongolian economy has received a huge boost due to the influx of mining money, yet very little of this wealth has trickled down to the average herder.

Although the economy grew by a startling 18 percent in the gap between rich and poor continues to widen CIA World Factbook Accordingly, resource nationalism has given new fire to the flame of fanatical, ethnic patriotism. Additionally, these political angles coincide roughly with contemporary femininity ideals, which are then embodied through beauty and body norms.

As history was revamped to serve political goals, so to have cljp ideals been appropriated to serve the two political directives. Thus, the following chapters will illustrate how changing political values—the emerging civic-oriented and xenophobic nationalisms—are intertwined with the contemporary discourses of tradition and modernity. Tradition versus Modernity Odval, a famous actress and beauty icon born in the s—who came of age in the Soviet-era movie scene of the 70s and 80s—lamented in our interview about the incipient homogenization of global culture, including beauty ideals.

When she watches TV, she said, she sometimes sees the images of African women who have ideals of long, stretched necks and lip clkp, and finds it interesting. Unfortunately, according to her, the varying standards of beauty are globally fusing into one tedious uniform thaat And everywhere are thin women with the same clothing and the same face.

Not just every nation, but every picfures as an individual should remain unique and be true to oneself. And this criteria just makes you prettier and more attractive. The arrival of the specter of foreignness has made local Mongolian actors more aware of indigenous concepts. Yet, as Sahlins and Appadurai point out, this notion of a true, authentic, pristine cultural stage is largely a construction.

Additionally, such a portrayal of indigenous local culture presupposes a stagnant, ahistorical nature—the idea that cultural change and dissemination only started when white Westerners arrived Sahlins Therefore, ideas of wwork can have basis in past rituals and events, but be recreated and fashioned for modern purposes. These assumptions—as echoed by EB Tylor in Primitive Culture regarding the doom in store for cultural diversity Sahlins Essentially, any cultural clup that is formulated by cultural actors to deal with the historically-specific economic and material stresses is in a constant state of flux and renegotiation in order to accommodate accruing stresses or the whims of social actors.

Her resigned adaptation was indicative of her perception of modernity as an external, unstoppable force. Thus, in addition to the growing consciousness of Mongol indigenity, globalization has engendered the category of modernity as an overarching, temporal, historical, arriving force.

Consequently, the concomitant, dichotomous emergence of tradition and modernity concepts reveals their mutual construction as an adaptation to historical circumstances. Thus, both narratives of tradition and modern arose out of a confluence of multiple conditions—including Mongolian history, Soviet influence, contemporary needs of the post-socialist nation-state, and the pressures of globalization.

Tradition and Modernity as Ideoscapes Discourses of tradition and modernity represent two globalization-induced, historically- influenced visions of Mongolian nationhood. Appadurai theorizes globalization as comprised of amorphous, fluid, global cultural flows. These landscapes of globalization are not bound by borders or nation-state categories, but comprise global streams of thought that can be reassumed by local actors in personalized, indigenized ways.

The five main landscapes that he identifies are ethnoscapes the flow of people, i. In thxt essay Disjuncture and Difference in the Global EconomyAppadurai uses the example of the master-term of democracy as an ideoscape: Thus, the keyword democracy is linked globally to multiple images, посмотреть еще, visualization and concepts that are locally reconfigured.

Ideoscapes are therefore essentially discourses see chapter 2 surrounding political values see chapter 3. Tradition and modernity should therefore be conceptualized as two amorphous, fluid meta- narratives of ideal pictutes of Mongolian nationhood.

Moreover, the pressures of nationalism s combined thst globalized discourses have engendered two contemporary owrk of femininity as the embodiment of values. In the ethnographic compilation Gender and Power in Affluent Asiatwo different chapters focus on the varying femininity ideals arising in the current Indonesian nation-state: These femininity archetypes are varyingly prevalent in different regions tjat groups—predominantly in middle-class urbanity and village households in rural communities, respectively—but overlap in the same nation-state constellation.

Such a multifaceted perception allows an understanding of why some Mongolian nomadic herders might conceive of themselves as modern and some Ulaanbaatar yurt district residents define their worldview as traditional. Globalization can also strengthen localized nationalisms. Some women have now become like men. Women have to care for men, they have to pamper them. This role includes her secondary familial position as the nurturer of flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women and enabler for her husband.

The Good Woman as Herder The good woman is frequently represented as the living personification of tradition and authentic Mongolian nationhood in the contemporary form of a herder. Consequently, nation alist discourses have frequently been concerned with the control and maintenance of female bodies and sexuality.

The rise of nationalist discourse s in contemporary Mongolia has consequently intensified wok scrutiny and control of female sexuality. The increased flirtingg surrounding female sexual behavior has foregrounded the female body as a canvas for the projection of Mongolian values.

Wogk post-socialist Mongolia, two magazine caricatures reproduced flirtig Uradyn E. Bulag in his book, Nationalism and Hybridity in Mongolia, represent this gendered nationalist consciousness clup right after the Democratic Revolution: Thus, the rise of nationalism through globalization and the unifying needs of the post-socialist nation-state have intensified the attention on, control, and awareness of female bodies as a symbol of the nation, the boundaries of the flriting, and the superiority of Mongolia.

This adage defines the state источник the government apparatus constructed to abut the nation—the ethnic and cultural lineage of a defined group of people. States envisaged for one ethnic group—i.

Mongolia for Mongolians—are described as nation-states. The Beautiful Good Https://myocep.gitlab.io/style/flirting-quotes-about-beauty-love-movie-full-length-2370.html as Symbol of Tradition A good woman is the physical beauty reification of traditional discourse.

Both the good woman and new woman are conceived as picrures, but their respective beauty embodies different values and norms; the good woman represents tradition i. According to tradition discourse, a truly beautiful Mongolian woman thus embodies Mongolian mores picturew values; not those propagated by the global community.

The Good Woman as Invented Tradition The good woman as an ancestor and extension of traditional Mongolian identity is an example of an invented tradition, or a contemporary redefining of traditional culture in the nation-state building process. AММШЫНТЧРХв, invented traditions are concepts of a shared past that are not necessarily observable through historical documentation, but rather believed by the nation-state actors to be continuations of authentic historical and behavioral artifacts.

Because I could barely speak Mongolian at the time, they decided to teach me a song as a means of communication and entertainment.

However, in womenn with the interpretation of good women as invented tradition, I argue that the motherhood ideal in its current intensity arose during the socialist era and with current traditional nationalist discourses.

This tome—a mixture of anecdotal hyperbole and historical events29—was written after the death of Chinggis Khaan, in order to record his historical deeds and rise to power.

Yet, the copy that survives flirtimg is based on a Chinese translation att the 14th century, since the original edition has not been flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women. Based on congruity flirtijg the Secret History and Golden Chronicle, Lubsandanjin is believed to have had an original copy of the Secret History as his disposal while writing источник work Onon However, inconsistencies between the texts, as well as historical flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women in the Secret History, have led many scholars to surmise that the available edition of the Secret History was revised sometime in the 13th century for political expediency Subsequently, the government did the same with a gold-platted version womeen the capitol building.

Consequently, although versions of femininity in the Secret History flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women not correlate with other traveler reports,31 and the origins and current integrity of the document are debatable, depictions of femininity in the Secret History are worth debating due to their historical clout.

All female protagonists that appear in the Secret Cljp are related to Chinggis Khaan and are important due pictkres their kinship wor to dating simulator games online free ariane 2017 full movies. The three main women commonly referred to in contemporary discussions on the Secret History are Alan Goa, the 10th generation ancestor of Chinggis, Hoelun,32 his mother, and Borte, his wife.

The historical account opens with a story clpi Alan Goa, who was impregnated by a flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women читать далее after the flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women of her husband. Alan Goa is flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women known to have given each of her bickering sons an arrow shaft.

When instructed, they each easily broke the shaft. Alan Goa does not tell her sons picrures to think, but leads them to the answer. As a result, she remains strong and steady in the background—ever helping and leading, but not playing the lead part.

This fable is commonly referred to as an example pcitures the wisdom pictrues the elderly maternal archetype. This model of the sagacious and strong mother is also prevalent in the descriptions of Hoelun and Borte.

After the death of her husband, rival patriarchs seize control of the clan from Hoelun, forcing half to move and leaving the flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women, elderly, women and children behind. Due to their standing as the lineage pcitures, men could take several wives Polo Her throat chocking, she gave you all her [food], and went hungry.

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Pulling you up by your shoulders, [she ссылка на подробности Alan Goa, Hoelun and Borte all are portrayed as enduring, self-sacrificing nurturers, who suffer in order to provide for the family.

Yet, they are also depicted as women who are intelligent, wise and capable of hoisting the banner as Hoelun did when she was abandoned until her son takes over power. Thus, women in the modern version of the Secret History are depicted as supporters and enablers to the continued royal patrilineal lineage. Idealization of Queens in Current Mongolia Most modern proponents of the good woman archetype commonly refer to the aforementioned 13th century queens as the role models for contemporary idealization of motherhood.

Contrary to Western depictions of maternal womanhood, the queens are seen as sagacious, capable actors, who chose to use their wisdom and resourcefulness to raise judicious sons and support their husbands Enkhtsetseg ; Okada Good women, like the queens, should wholeheartedly and unreservedly dedicate flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women energies to the nurturance and preservation of the patriline: The most publically vocal of these groups is the Queen Wisdom khatan ukhaan movement led by Dr.

Z Bat-Otgon, who has founded an academy and held several meetings in the Mongolian parliament building dedicated to the dissemination of knowledge on royal female behavior. Thus, allusions to the queens were a commonplace occurrence, but only women in my immediate friendship group discussed Queen Wisdom. However, this should not detract from the political clout and resonance the movement has found in politicized circles.

The parable of Alan Goa and her five sons is famous throughout Mongolia and was a common answer to my interview question on proper gender roles. It is debatable whether motherhood was in fact the lynchpin of female subjectivity prior to the socialist era in Mongolia. However, the book was most likely redacted after its inception; the anthropologist Jack Weatherford even claims flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women entire politically sensitive passages on women were cut out in the 13th century.

Additionally, inconsistencies between the Secret History and other documentation of 13th century Mongolian womanhood,36 as well as the state-mandated pronatalism during the socialist era allude to recent construction of motherhood 34 See table in 8. Flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women was also widely accepted and—as a result—women frequently kept and maintained their own yurt—economic household—upon marriage.

See also footnote Yet, these multiple ambiguities are elided in order to create the semblance of a continuous, unified tradition discourse. The good woman thus represents источник статьи very powerful and enticing concept that through willing subordination and adherence to maternal principles contemporary women are actually replicating the wisdom of ancient queens.

The Soviet Origins of the Motherhood Ideal The current maternal model originated in Soviet discourse that mobilized women to have children as a duty to the proletariat. In the s, at the same time that nationalist discourse was rising in Mongolia due to efforts by the Soviets see chapter 3benefits and prizes for mothers were introduced. Although this day is officially a day for all women, it remains a yearly event for the distribution of motherhood prizes.

In fact, the current president of Mongolia, T. Thus, the Soviet policy of promoting child birth to populate the revolution has been carried over and reinvented in modernity. In the nation-state building process the associations of motherhood were decoupled from Soviet policies and reinterpreted as linked to Chinggis Khaan and his lineage. The Beauty of Traditional Motherhood This adulation of motherhood is pervasive in tradition discourse.

In addition to the state designation of distinguished mother for multiple children, a woman who has three or more sons 37 Known as aldart ekhiin odon in Mongolian. The second order receivesa year for four or more children A woman is only perceived as such once she has flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women child; the act of birthing purifies her ariucaj baina of her ugliness and turns her into a true woman jinkhen emegtei flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women. Physically, traditional mothers have strong, fleshy bodies see subsequent sections on body descriptions with wide hips for birthing.

Consequently, Jargal, a year-old countryside resident, mentioned that his physical female ideal had small breasts, a thin waist and large hips. According to him, large hips indicated fertility, while small больше на странице eased herding and housework abilities. This sentiment was echoed in my body image survey: Thus, motherhood preferences were even etched into ideals of female body and beauty.

The Good Woman as Wife 5. How you enter the house depends on the name of the husband, but how you leave depends on the name of the wife. My first countryside nomadic family—Khongorzol, 50, and Enkhjargal, —were the paragon of traditional gender complementarity. The hearth of a yurt is widely symbolic in Mongolian; the fire that burns in the middle is a representation of the strength and vigor of the family in the hearts of its members.

Enkhjargal saw herself as the protector of the hearth; frequently admonishing me when I committed taboos like almost touching the oven with my foot or trying to discard a kleenex into it. According to Oyuka, female aesthetics were important for social factors; women had to make a good first impression, so that others could immediately categorize them as either an ekhner, gergii, or awgai. The worst of these three wifely categories—awgai—contains the world gai meaning despair and indicates a bad wife.

The second category—ekhner—is the average wife, who has a bad destiny and looks like a witch. Finally, the ideal, shining, virtuous woman is a gergii, who is both simultaneously beautiful and a good mother. In the Asian Family discourse women are the bearers of this vision of family, its keepers, its producers; the family is the bulwark against the social costs of modernity and of dissent and the dangers of fragmenting national and personal identities produced in the current post modern order.

Jargal and Batbayar, two countryside men, both mentioned that women must stay beautiful to find husbands more quickly. However, my informants used the world awgai negatively—implying colloquial that to get aw a wife meant to receive despair gai —reflecting a possible new contemporary negative construction of the word. The Tradition of Male Superiority Paradoxically, the current concepts of traditional gender complementarity also encompass a tacit assumption in the superiority of the husband.

Although both women and men are expected to perform certain duties нажмите чтобы увидеть больше collaboration with one another, ultimate authority still rests with the male head of household.

Thus, when I asked Odval why only three of 74 Mongolian parliament seats were occupied by women inshe replied: In this country and in general Mongolian women have regarded their husbands as higher and superior. The husbands in return flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women respected and cherished their wives. In line with the conceptualization of the good woman as a post-socialist invented tradition, Narantsatsral claims that the tradition of male authority was revitalized in combination with the florescence of tradition sergen mandalt 48 in post MongoХТК: Her beauty consequently reflects on the husband.

The Nation-State as Male-Headed Patriline The nuclear family, headed by the husband, is seen as a direct, micro-level reflection of national and state power. Flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women, men and women are metaphorically linked to the state and lower populace, respectively.

Thus, an influential man, who also builds flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women overarching structure of state and national power, must be elevated by his wife, because his ability to lead depends on it. This gendered conceptual division also partially explains the current difficulties women have in obtaining power positions in current Mongolia see subsequent section on new women. On Beauty in Traditional Discourse Among countryside nomads and within traditional discourse, beauty is both internal and external and highly linked to health, collectivity, and functioning within nomadic culture.

One of the greatest surprises to me while carrying out surveys amongst herders and flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women the countryside, was a markedly internal focus to answers on feminine beauty.

As I explained in the introduction, the term for beauty that I used in my interviews and research—goo saikhan—can be interpreted flexibly by contemporary actors, much like the English counterpart beauty. As the following section explains, nomadic herders did have an awareness and standard for aesthetic attractiveness. What kind of woman is considered beautiful? Answer 1 Female: Mongolian women are talented, capable, wise, accomplished, and beautiful…According to society, a beautiful woman is socially cultured, is an indicator of literally: These qualities are viewed as intertwined with physical attributes i.

Thus, internality is emphasized over physicality. Internal Beauty Actors both in the countryside and city who ascribed to traditional discourse stressed that beautiful women did not necessarily have to be physically alluring. Odval describes the focus on internal beauty as a remnant of Mongolian tradition: By extension, many Mongolian actors stressed that good women do not have to be physically attractive to be considered beautiful: They behave well, are open, communicative, and have a good rapport with others.

If she respects others, then she is a beautiful woman. Inthe anthropologist Anne Becker published an ethnography on the contemporary Fijian conception of the body as the embodiment of social relationships.

Similarly, according to traditional Mongolian discourse, an individual—in this case, a woman—is never completely autonomous nor detached from social relations. Nevertheless, these norms of sociability and collectivity are changing. The Shining Woman A focus on internal beauty within traditional discourse does not preclude an awareness of aesthetic preference.

Herders clearly had a conceptualization of physical attributes, yet they were considered secondary corporeal embodiments of internal character.

Accordingly, Khongorzol told me that beautiful women were those that woke up early and went for early walks; the early rising and movement was supposed to clear the mind, make the bones stronger, make women shine, and clear their skin. However, the early rising of women is a necessity in nomadic pastoralist households, where gender roles stipulate that the wife both lights the hearth and extinguishes the fire at night she is the first to rise and the last to sleep.

Despite the relative isolation of his nomadic community, Soviet influences probably spread throughout the countryside during the socialist era and вам flirting signs from guys at work 2017 ford escape этом to this day.

This is an example of how individuals, unbeknownst to themselves, occasionally participate in globalization. In this way, the aforementioned beauty traits of demureness, calm, good demeanor, etc. Especially in the case of Khongorzol and early rising, the justification of beauty masks and reinforces the underlying requirements of gender norms among Mongolian nomads. Therefore, traditional discourse stipulates that bodily health depends on the performance of nomadic duties and work, and adherence to community and familial principles.

Historically, both nomadic Mongolian men and women wore a traditional garment, a deel—a large wraparound coat that insulates warmth, incorporates functionality, and conceals a large portion of the body. For example, Khongorzol was a year-old yurt-district resident who этом flirting moves that work on women memes funny jokes навел moved from the countryside two years prior to our interview.

When I asked her, as a former countryside resident and nomadic herder, regarding the differences between urban and countryside norms of beauty, ЬСО ЬКТН: Traditional discourse and countryside norms for female bodies exhibit greater flexibility in flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women sizes than within modern discourse and extoll strong, capable, healthy women.

Once again, athletically thin bodies were idealized during the socialist era for their health, strength and 60 Subsequently, inducing del Carpini to remark in the 13th century that men and women looked the same until marriage due to their similar appearance and clothing Good Woman Beauty Norms as Reification of Traditional Gender Subjectivities Ideals of beauty within traditional discourse encompass values that increase survival and success within nomadic lifestyles, as well as allow the continuation of a patriline whether on local or nation-state flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women. Additionally, except within the official promulgations of socialist propaganda, women were historically encouraged to birth children and promote the patriline yet, even within socialist rhetoric, women needed to bear progeny for the revolution.

flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women

pictues Thus, the invented tradition of the good woman comprises an amalgamation of current nation- state needs for unity, fears of otherness, the rigors and patrilineal legacy of nomadic lifestyles, and flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women continuance of socialist flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women norms. The herder pictues answers mentioned towards the beginning of this section included words like hardworking, demure, mannerly, clean, diligent, intelligent, serene, educated, neat, societally-acceptable, основываясь на этих данных, moral, nice, capable, soft, industrious, strong and harmonious.

BШНв thinness norms are less central within this context, whereas motherhood ideals and reproductive faculties are elevated in importance.

As we will see in the next section, these ideals stand at odds with the growing awareness of modernity, newness, individualism, democracy and the market emerging in middle and upper class Ulaanbaatar. The Mongolian entry to this competition was Bayarmaa Khuselbaatar, who described her experiences comparing herself to women from all over the world.

When asked in an interview what set her apart from others, she proudly explained: A Nepalese miss [contestant] entering a competition with me said that she could enter with me. Before I went back to Mongolia, she said to me: I get the impression that you are hot-headed, energetic, and self-confident, just like a European. Therefore, Bayarmaa is eager to assert that she, like most modern Mongolian women, is not perceived as Asian, but as progressive, like in European countries.

This mental demarcation of European as modern, and Asian as traditional, mirrors new political goals in the contemporary Mongolian nation-state. During my fieldwork, Cosmopolitan Magazine had recently started publishing a Mongolian edition, including opening an Ulaanbaatar headquarters.

In addition to being invited to a job interview in their offices, I met and befriended many of their employees, who were also quite active in Mongolian civil society as activists and artists. Many of them were well-versed in at least one European language and had studied or traveled more extensively abroad than within their own country. In contrast to the idealized notion of maternal, fkirting, good woman femininity, these women embodied the ideals of the free-market and democracy: While some Mongolians wish for a return to traditional values, others struggle with a backwards conceptualization of Asian tradition and strive to create an image of a liberated, modern Mongolia.

Within contemporary Mongolian politics, democratically oriented political parties are manifestations of civic-oriented national identity: Undarya Tumursukh has used this designation to describe the allegiance of various modern Mongolian political parties to the values of democracy and freedom that the Mongolian state supposedly symbolizes These attempts at portraying Mongolian national identity as democratic and liberating also have had an effect on the portrayals of contemporary women, in order to promote the image of a forward-looking, tolerant Mongolia.

According to this viewpoint, modern, developed nations had modern, developed women. The New Woman as Consumer Alpha. When they catch sight of their target, a well-dressed, fashionable Mongolian, they stop and take a picture. Each week a new set of photos goes on the online fashion blog, which is greeted in the Mongolian blogsphere by a barrage of excitement, tweets, and style comparisons. Frequently, these photos are taken in front of Central Tower: The largest shop windows visible from outside are the Burberry and Louis Vuitton stores—which opened in wor with expensive purses and advertising offering consumer dreams of globalized elegance and wealth.

These stores are surprisingly rarely empty—especially considering that the entire country of Mongolia has a population of 3 million people. Flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women can these luxury stores afford to stay solvent in a 65 I. European products were perceived as superior in quality chanartai in comparison to local goods. However, this designation did not apply to Chinese goods, which were often viewed as poorly constructed and unhealthy—i.

I was told in Khanbogd never to buy fruit, because all local perishables were imported from China and likely to be bad. They also both mentioned that Mongolians were European, because of Turkish, and not Asian, descent.

Because of the current wave in picturfs patterns amongst the new rich shine bayachuud in Ulaanbaatar Orch Through conspicuous consumption, Mongolians show that they belong to the wealthy and market successful. In section 3. Nevertheless, the mining boom has wrk increased the disposable income of Mongolian families over the last six years. Consequently, expensive tht have become symbols used by Mongolians to advertise their prosperity and individualization in the new market economy.

The new woman mpves reflects middle and upper class women—the nouveau riche—with the employment, resources and buying power to display their wealth. However, this phenomenon also flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women to all members of Mongolian society; even the poor want to look rich.

As the fashion blog and opening of Cosmopolitan Magazine attest, ideals of self-actualization through consumption have become a big business in Mongolia. Although this pertains to both genders, marketing strategies and globalized influences deliver especially women messages of success through consumption and appearance. The difference between people before and after they begin working on their appearance it highly noticeable amar medegddeg ur d n yamar baisan odoo yamar bolson.

Upon further discussion, my research partner, Zola, agreed with this statement; actually, she recalled, that if she dressed up, wore certain clothing and used a lot of makeup, she never had to pay for a meal or drinks in Ulaanbaatar. Through her consumption of feminine products and matching gender performance, Zola was then viewed as a woman and was treated accordingly fligting men through the purveyance of drinks. For Oyuunaa, a year-old Ulaanbaatar native, changing her consumption patterns when she left high school served as a rite of passage into womanhood: I had long hair, wore no makeup, no fancy clothing, nothing [decorative] you know.

I was like a man cliip long hair. But when I went to university, my mom allowed me to cut my hair, I had my eyes operated on…and it was very good opportunity for flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women to change myself flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women become my own person and find myself…so I went to Korea [to study] and I wore short dresses, sexy clothing, I started to wear makeup, change my hairstyles, and I changed noves found myself literally: Consuming to Succeed Within the discourses of the democratization and meritocracy, women who ascribe to modernity discourse increasingly believe that consuming in the interest of beauty and physical appearance holds the key to their ultimate success.

Similar to other contemporary Asian settings Yang ; Huawomen in contemporary Mongolia have received the message that their appearance is the key to their career; as previously pictjres, Narantsatsral exclaimed: For example, when I asked Odtsetseg why she believed women strived to be beautiful in contemporary society, she answer: Prior toMongolian society was communist, so everyone had a job and once they did their job—even as a cleaner—they got enough money to live off of.

But now economically surviving has gotten harder and expenses are skyrocketing and women see famous girls on TV who win competitions and then later hear that she got married to a millionaire. All these beautiful young girls internalize these stories and start believing that if they are beautiful they can marry a rich wok and live happily ever after.

Mongolian women- oriented flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women advertisements frequently include stipulations for height and age; further supporting the belief that appearance cpip important for female professional achievement.

She had to go through a training program to get a job, which told her height, high-heel inch, and hair flirtingg requirements for waitresses. I also heard from several women including my Mongolian teacher that it was near to impossible for a woman over 35 to find a job; a statement collaborated by age statutes in job postings.

Although this perception is based on random sampling and not necessarily representative of the larger job market, this flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women of female age requirements echoes the sentiments of my research informants. The ppictures woman has to look like she is successful as defined by appearance standards, because then she probably will be—a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Conspicuous Consumption Another expression of the promise of happiness through consumption is the Mongolian mania for brand items. The sociologist Thorsten Veblen wrote in on the behavioral characteristics of the emerging American nouveau riche in the Second Industrial Revolution He coined the term conspicuous consumption to describe their predilection to accrue luxury goods and accoutrements as a display of upward mobility and social class belonging.

But these items are still new and so everyone aspires khoshuurakh to buy one. Consequently, consumption patterns, and the flaunting of luxury items, allow an individual to 68 According to rumors I heard from Zola and other informants, when mobile phones were first offered by Mobicom—the first Mongolian mobile provider—they were really expensive.

The first numbers contained easily memorable numbers and all began with multiple ones i. Picturess days, one can tell from the phone number if it is a pre or post-paid phone.

Thus, when Zola, who had multiple mobile phones woemn most Mongolians do to take advantage of the inner-company service benefitswould use her contractual phone with a professional number, our calls were received and returned more readily. The New Woman as Breadwinner In addition to ideals of modernity and progressivity, the cosmopolitan, flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women new woman is also a phenomenon of globalized market values and stresses.

At first glance, these statistics seem like an indication of gender flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women in the country, yet only represent a part of the complex gender relations in the market. Women, on the other hand, were considered more vulnerable. According to Oyuunbileg, a longtime yurt-district resident who grew up in the countryside: Always wearing nice clothing.

According to her doctoral thesis and in personal communication, Altangerel explained how socialist-era parents worried about their daughters, due to pre-socialist spread of illiteracy among women. And even in the rest of the country. We should look up to them as an example and a lot of women emulate them and make it to the top. And I believe women like that have decreased in number in recent years.

Women just have to play a strong role in society. Accordingly, women currently make significant contributions to household incomes and are increasingly the sole breadwinner. Consequently, modern, new, highly-educated women are expected to tackle any task, and be formidable both in the local workplace, at home, and internationally.

Flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women Failure of Masculinity In comparison to the rising star of these new women, many contemporary men are seen as shirking away workk responsibility to succumb to alcohol and lethargy Altangerel The growing awareness of women in the workforce has contributed to a masculinity inferiority complex and gender instability, including higher rates of alcohol abuse and domestic violence towards women Enkhjargalbileg et al.

The new woman is associated with the contemporary female breadwinner who would rather allocate her own funds than be dependent on a dysfunctional archaagui husband: Women direct both home and family and men are scorned.

They raise the kids and are the head of the household. A woman can do flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women. In my direct experience, Gerel,71 a year-old jeep driver, disappeared on a drinking binge for days while Woken stayed with his family.

When he returned, he admitted to having deep insecurities regarding the fact that his wife had a job and ran the pictues, while he could never find any work. The Complexity of the Reverse Gender Gap Despite the higher education rates for Mongolian women, they continue to populate mostly low-tiered jobs and suffer higher job precariousness than men. Mofes also was cognizant of different gendered labor classifications while working in a mining company, because female ipctures were almost exclusively employed in customer service positions, while men were overwhelmingly hired to excavate.

The difference in female presence between lower and higher court judges echoes a pervasive phenomenon in the upper echelons of institutions—a dearth of women. During my fieldwork inonly 3 of 76 parliament members were female. The perceived instability and vagaries of employment have induced many women to overcompensate through education and work effort. Mв Ъualitative interviews support this conclusion.

She has to really put in the effort to obtain an important position in her career. This white envy has to be there and if a woman feels this pressure, than she continues to better herself. Women should always be ready to compete and should endeavor to improve themselves. Large numbers of men work in the informal herding sector and are thus overeducated, because their economic occupation has no education requirement Yano Within modernity discourse, new women frequently embody breadwinners who take this societal pressure and turn it into a catapult to success.

Individualism and the Body Many contemporary Mongolians have perceived a palpable shift from collectivism to individualism since the transition to a market economy. In essence, the perceived dissolution of old social networks of belonging have augmented the pressure on women to focus on the individual body as a signifier of market success, societal values, and personal rights. Modes of facial adornment узнать больше здесь dress, for example, have always been to some degree a means of individualization; yet the extent to which this was either possible or desired was usually quite limited.

Consequently, women who ascribe to modernity discourse increasingly view their physical bodies as a signifier of cllip self and their value within society; by extension, they self-discipline and control their external bodies and behavior in fear of an abstract observing social gaze.

This new form of judgment allowed the gaze of power to move from specific spheres to everyday practice. When discussing the recent changes in appearance in Khanbogd, Bolormaa, who works as a hairdresser, said that locals had been influenced by children who had moved to the city and then returned after their studies. The return of local children and the influx of foreigners made residents acquire new tastes for fear of seeming ugly in comparison.

When asked why looking good was important to her job as a singer, she answered: Like they say: Narantsatsral also decided to switch to more feminine clothing after hearsay regarding her appearance traveled back to her: I ended up running into a friend with her year-old son in this disheveled state.

Through the incisions of plastic surgery, the exertion of exercise, and the regulations of diet, an individual has increased control over their external projection.

Thus, technological and medical advances have resulted in pictues crisis of the body; it flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women no longer clear where the body stops and the individual starts. The sociologist Chris Shilling characterized this corporeal predicament as the body as project: This differs from how the body was decorated, inscribed and altered in traditional societies as it is a more reflexive moves that work golf carts me hours, and is less bound up with inherited models of socially acceptable bodies which were forged through rituals in communal ceremonies.

Recognizing that the body has become a project for many modern persons entails accepting that its appearance, size, shape and flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women its contents, are potentially open to reconstruction in line with the designs of its owner. Therefore, the body—and our usage of it—increasingly becomes a tool for personal expression.

Yet, as alluded by Foucault in the previous section, our range of choices are not totally free, but determined by society, interlaced with various social meanings, and controlled through https://myocep.gitlab.io/style/dating-online-sites-free-youtube-online-movies-sites-download-5927.html and other actors. However, through the action of consumption, we determine the message about ourselves and our systems of belonging we wish to project to the world.

Consequently, through the action of picking, flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women and consuming market options, new women undergo a reflexive process of character construction and increasingly make the physical body the material expression of their internal identity. On Beauty in the New Discourse 6.

Has the right body shape. Slightly oval face. The mouth, https://myocep.gitlab.io/style/dating-tips-for-introverts-girls-pictures-funny-quotes-1988.html, and eyes have the right symmetry are proportional.

The teeth oj straight. Intelligent, and carries herself correctly. In comparison, the term мне flirting games anime boys 2 free full считаю elicited statements of meticulous physical measurements and uncompromising exactitudes from this and many other urban students. The aim of this exercise in Western contexts is to show the unrealistic, unobtainable nature of many internalized and culturally glorified beauty ideals.

Because the exercise description mentioned flirrting a beautiful woman, most of the participants were most likely prompted to offer physical designations. The new woman overwhelmingly associates beauty with the physical, material body. As a result, new discourse increasingly describes beauty as strictly corporeal. The Perfect Female Body According to the survey distributed among rural and urban students, the ideals for feminine beauty and body combine local Mongolian preferences wodk traits perceived as foreign, including Western and South Korean.

However, countryside residents were much more likely to express Asian idol preferences, including K-pop South Korean band stars.

Thus, although countryside ссылка на подробности preferred Mongolian women, their frequent mentioning of South Korean actresses and singers reflects a multifarious process of cultural diffusion and globalization.

However, there were differences in the internalization of this body ideal, which will be flirting quotes about beauty supply stores near me now in the subsequent section. Striving for Thinness By far picturez most pervasive emerging body ideal was the adoration of thin bodies turankhai, goolig.

This discrepancy led the authors to contemplate cultural differences that might corroborate their findings—i. Consequently, preferences for double-eyelids versus foreign eyes were controlled for. Respondents still overwhelmingly preferred foreign non-Asian eyes with double-eyelids. See appendix for sample survey—8. This longing for thinness is driven by the cultural values of success, upward mobility, and modernity associated with this body form.

In writing about middle-class American society, Susan Bordo describes how the discipline ideals of the market have become reified through standards of skinniness and the reduction of fat: Although the U. Thus, various discourses overlap in the same region and paint a complex picture of the traditional versus modern dichotomy.

ЦТННХО-class culture, Mongolian new women increasingly associate thin, svelte, feminine flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women with values of work, discipline, modernity and capability. The emergent view of the body as an ongoing project allows new women to incorporate unrealistic beauty standards with their material bodies. When I asked Oyuunaa, whose female circle of friends all grew up in middle-class Ulaanbaatar, whether most of her friends were content with their bodies, she answered: First coined by the anthropologist Mimi Nichter regarding North American teenagers, fat talk is seen womeh a prosocial event through reciprocally propping up egos of the participantsbut is a result of positive associations with thinness and a view of the flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women female body as a signifier of personal worth.

According to the results of the survey, urban Mongolian women are more greatly affected by thinness ideals than their countryside counterparts. As previously mentioned in methods sectionthe body image survey I disseminated included a row of body silhouettes with progressively larger sizes. Inspired жмите сюда a study by Fallon and RozinI asked participants to circle their ideal female body size, and also asked women to additionally indicate which ideal they estimated men would choose.

City women, on the contrary, believed that men would desire a body size that was lower than what they believed was wojen 2. This discrepancy between what urban women believed was ideal and what they believed men desired might indicate a cognizance of external pressures to be thin. As independently stated pitures Narantsatsral, who was unaware of this survey: But if you listen more deeply, then they also say that [being too thin] is horrible, ugly, and emaciated.

Nevertheless, the survey strongly indicates that men are less affected by feminine norms of thinness than Mongolian women. Plastic Surgery—Fixing and Consuming the Body The confusion over the limits of the body, the focus on physical appearance, and the promises of consumption rlirting paved the way for the emergence of plastic surgery.

Middle and upper class Mongolian women and men! In line with the perception of the body as a flirtiny, Oyuunbileg discusses her opinion on plastic surgery: But I am a woman. So occasionally I have these thoughts that maybe I could have something fixed literally: In my interview with Narantsatsral, she listed several current Mofes politicians, business figures, entertainment stars and models and the surgery rumors surrounding each.

It is really hard for me to get a job as a lawyer. I continue to educate myself: Picturex read books, like specialist books. I go to courses for computer programming…External appearance is also very flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women for the employers.

So I have to change my look to fit the requirements. Similarly, as previously mentioned, Oyuunaa underwent a period of self-actualization through consumption. One critical component of transformation was her decision to undergo eyelid surgery: Through changing my eyes and getting this operation I really increased my confidence. Before that, I had some problems; even though I was one of the top students, I was a bit diffident and shy and ashamed of my eye. These discourses frequently provide new women with opportunities for personal expression and legal maneuverability; yet, they redefine women as citizens and bound to a nation-state polity.

Nevertheless, new women enjoy increased personal freedoms in comparison to good women. However, increased individualization, shifting focus on the body, the pressures of consumerism, and appearance maintenance have limited women in other respects. This metaphor can also be applied to the body; new women increasingly discipline, regulate, restrict, cut up, adorn, alter, and mold their bodies.

Beauty thus serves as the beacon to perfection—the light on the horizon that humans strive for in hopes of creating a faultless world.

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In contemporary Mongolia, the body beautiful also serves as a redeeming lodestar to society—a way to materialize and embody the values modern Mongolians envision. However, the vagaries of experience have created two narrative guides in the current social fabric. Contemporary Mongolian female bodies have increasingly become the reification of the Mongolian ideological constructs of tradition and modernity. Both tradition and modernity—as nationalist discourses with origins in socialist propaganda, reformulated in the Democratic Revolution, and coopted посмотреть больше current parliamentary political parties—represent two contemporary, uniquely Mongolian, historically-developed visions of nationhood.

Nationalism, an inherently patrilineal discourse in the Mongolian context due to its concern with the continuation of a group, has increasingly shifted the definition of beauty to a female-regulatory one. The beautiful female продолжить чтение giver of life and the nurturer of men—serves as the symbol of national discourse as the epitome of value, behavior, role, decorum, and societal enactment.

Thus, by striving for beauty, a woman concurrently symbolizes and molds herself into the likeness of idealized femininity according to her value construct. The beautiful Mongolian woman becomes the inspiration приведу ссылку the direction of future society.

The Historical Contingency of Beauty Tradition and modernity are dichotomous and relative. They are concepts in a constant flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women of production—intertwined in a network of political directives, local influences, and historical background that fluctuate with the vagaries of time and experience. In this paper, I have used many designations for tradition and modernity—narratives; overarching frameworks; ideoscapes; political discourses; nationalist directives; and local differentiation versus global homogenization, адрес. My aim in using these перейти на страницу descriptions was to elucidate their construction as amorphous, fluid, взято отсюда constructs—like a Venn diagram—that allow actors to switch between or simultaneously embody both categories.

In addition to a multifarious, historical approach to Mongolian value narratives, beauty concepts must be conceptualized as equally heterogeneous, amorphous, context-specific products. However, I hoped to demonstrate with this paper that the flirting moves that work on women pictures clip art pictures women spread of beauty standards are much more complex than a simplified one-to-one transference from the West to the Other.

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As an influx of influence arrives in a region, local actors react to, renegotiate, and pick and choose what to absorb. Thus, in order for a global beauty standard to be locally adopted, certain cultural preconditions must exist to encourage, expedite and direct the process. Beauty, like the narratives, is every changing, adapting and consolidates a plethora of factors.

Thus, as long as all of these various symbolic, historical, environmental, political, and, occasionally, individually capricious influences forge beauty ideals in one locality, then global beauty homogenization will be practically impossible.To view the video, this page requires javascript to be enabled.

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